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Definition of Geology - Geology is the study of the Earth, its processes, its materials, its history, and its effect on humans and life in general.  Rocks, crystals, mountains, earthquakes, volcanoes, rivers, glaciers, landslides, floods, and many other subjects fall into this broad field of research. Or

In simple terms Geology is “the study of the Earth, its substances, shapes, processes and history”.

Details of Geology - Modern geology actually consists of four spheres that are co-dependent on one another. The biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere are all connected, so one must understand them all to understand one.

  • Geologists study the effects of weathering and erosion on the lithosphere caused by atmospheric, biologic, and hydrologic events.
  • Many of our most important natural resources are also derived from interactions between living organisms and the inorganic spheres of geology. For example, coal, oil, and limestone are considered sedimentary rock, but they are formed by immense pressure and heat applied to decaying terrestrial and marine organisms.

Main function of the geologists is to assess the natural disasters and its effects on environment, to explore areas rich in under-water resources, oil, natural gas and minerals.

They can assess whether the conditions in particular areas are suitable for laying railway lines, construction of roads, bridges, buildings etc. The geologists can also explore the natural resources deep in the sea.

Their services are also important for oil explorations. They determine the quality of soil by conducting geo-chemical and geo-physical tests. Construction of reservoirs, roads, bridges, underground tunnels etc. is based on the report of the geologist about the density of the earth. Geologists work for private industries, the federal government, museums, colleges and universities.

Specialised branches of geology - geomorphologists investigate the nature and origin of land forms by studying the causes and effects of dynamic earth processes; structural geologists are concerned with the arrangement of rock masses in the earth’s crust and the types of forces that have affected them; and stratigraphers investigate the thickness, geometry, and distribution of layered rocks to understand the chronology of geologic events.


Difference between Geography and Geology - Geographers tend to study the surface of the earth, its landscapes, its features, and why they are where they are. Geologists look deeper into the earth than do geographers and study its rocks, the internal processes of the earth (such as plate tectonics and volcanoes), and study periods of earth history many millions and even billions of years ago.

Major divisions/ subfields of Geology: - 1. Physical geology  2. Geo Chemistry 3. Petrology 4. Mineralogy
 5. Structural Geology 6. Cave Geology  7. Cryology  8. Geostatistics 9. Glaciology  10. Paleontology  11. Petrology 12. Economic Geology 13. Geo Biology 14. Geo chronology 15. Geomorphology   16. Marine Geology 17. Mineralogy  18. Paleogeography  19. Planetary Geology  20. Sedimentology  21. Fields of Seismology

Scope/ opportunities in Geography

  • Oil exploration and production industry/ Oil and Natural Gas Commission
  • Mineral ore exploration and Production (Iron ore, alumininum, gold/silver and copper)  
  • Environmentalists
  • Due to extensive civil works, such as the construction of the highways, airports, dams, residential complexes, pipelines, and ports
  • Geological Survey of India
  • Various private companies doing excavation works, drilling, piling, etc.
  • Teaching and research institutions wanting geology experts

Geology industry in India A person, who studies Geology, can become Geologists/ Meteorologists, Geographers, Oceanographers. The Union Public Service Commission conducts the tests for jobs in geology in India in Central Government Agencies like the Geological Survey of India and the Central Ground water Board. Alike, Oil & Natural Gas Corporation, Coal India, Mineral Exploration Authority, Hindustan Zinc and several other organizations engaged in mineral explorations utilize the services of Geologists. The Defense and Para-military forces utilize the services of Geologists. Job opportunities in Geology are very broad for someone who has good academic record.
Course Details

Under Graduate

  • B. Sc Geology
  • B. Sc applied Geology
  • Bachelor of Science in Nautical Science
  • BA Geology


  • M. Sc Agrometerology
  • M. Sc applied Geology
  • M. Sc applied Geology ( Tech)
  • M. Sc Geology
  • M. Sc Geology ( Tech)
  • M. Sc Geology and Applied Chemistry
  • M. Sc Marine Biology
  • M. Sc Petroleum Geology
  • M. Sc Petroleum Geosciences
  • M. Tech Applied Geology
  • M. Tech Geoexploration
  • M. Tech Petroleum Geoscience
  • Ph. D Geology
  • Ph. D Spatial informatics
  • M. Sc in Geoinformatics
  • M. Tech ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture
  • M. Tech in Mineral Processing Course
  • M. Tech ( Applied Geo Physics)
  • M. Tech in Computational Seismology
  • M. Sc Earth Science and Resource Management
  • M. E Mining Engineering
  • M. Sc Geo Information Technology
  • M Tech Environmental Science
  • M. Sc Earth Science
  • M. Phil Geology
  • M. Sc in Geo Spatial Science and Technology
  • M. Sc Meteorology
  • M. Sc in Management of mineral Resources
  • M. Sc Disaster Management
  • M. Sc  in applied Geology ( Integrated)


  • Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Geology
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Disaster management ( PGDDM)
  • Post Graduate  Diploma in Geoinformatics  

Certificate Course

  • Certificate Course in Climate Diamond Grading
  • Certificate Course on safe operation on Board Tankers & Chemical Carriers
  • Certificate course on Principle on Remote sensing
  •  Certificate course in Disaster Management & Security


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