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Agriculture Science

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What is Agriculture Science - is an art and science and practice of tilling the soil to cultivate crops, fiber and fodder.  The process includes ploughing of soil, land preparation, planting, irrigation, weeding, nutrient management, harvesting and post harvest processing.     

Details of the Agriculture

  • The study of agriculture is termed as agricultural science. It is a multidisciplinary field which consists of a variety of scientific, technical and business subjects that promote the efficient production of quality food on the farm and in the agricultural-food industry linked to farming.
  • The field of agriculture include agronomy, agrl extension, farm management, horticulture, businesses and industries that manufacture agricultural machinery, industries that buy and process farm products, banking activities for financing and developing farms, research for improving quantity and quality of farm products and so on.
  • Agricultural science professionals specialize in agricultural production and livestock. They play an important role in maintaining the nation's food supply. Some of the major tasks performed by them involves improving the quality and quantity of farming; improving crop yield with less labour; conservation of soil and water; controlling pests and weeds more safely and effectively etc. In short, Agricultural scientists engage in research to discover and promote effective, practical pathways to sustainable land use, food and fiber production and food harvesting
  • Those who have a passion for research, development and improvement in the existing agricultural products can opt for agricultural science as their career. The courses offered by various agricultural universities are designed for students interested in production agriculture, farm management etc. which can produce trained professionals in this field.
  • India’s agriculture has become globalised and the idea of integrating Indian agriculture with the world economy is getting support.
  • India has enormous potential as an exporter of agricultural commodities ranging from mushrooms to flowers, spices, cereals, oilseeds and vegetables. The spurt in government support for export of agri-products has evoked considerable interest among the large business houses which have worked out agreements for technology transfer, marketing tie-ups, and management and trading contacts with leading foreign counterparts.
  • Horticulture with its offshoot floriculture has become a focus of export activity. India’s exports of roses, carnations, gladioli, chrysanthemums, jasmine and other tropical plants and flowers are touching new heights.     
  • In the field of fruits and vegetables too, India has tremendous export potential. With the commercialisation of agriculture and horticulture there are varied opportunities for salaried jobs as well as entrepreneurship. While salaried jobs with various government and private concerns provide a regular income, entrepreneurship can generate handsome profits.
  • Landscapers and horticulturists are hired by hotels, health farms, and holiday resorts to beautify their surroundings. Florists and nurseries are doing lucrative business especially in the metropolitan cities. Suburban farmhouses have become important suppliers for the domestic market.

Main Branches/Sub divisions of Agriculture

  • Agronomy  & Weed Science
  • Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry
  • Plant Pathology & Mushroom Production
  • Entomology & Sericulture
  • Plant Physiology
  • Agricultural Economics & Extension
  • Horticulture
  • Agriculture Engineering
  • Plant Breeding and Genetics

Importance of Agriculture

  • Agriculture is the backbone of our Indian economy. As Mahatma Gandhi said, "India lives in villages and agriculture is the soul of Indian economy". Agricultural development is a precondition of our national prosperity.
  • Agriculture is the most important sector in the Indian economy and contributes more than20% to the Gross Domestic products and more than 50% of the total work force is depend on either directly or indirectly.
  • In India, we have 15 agro-climatic regions starting from Himalayan plains to Decan plains. Hence, there are ample opportunities to grow a variety of crops.
  • Net sown area in India is 143 million hectares and India has the highest percentage of land under cultivation in the world.
  • Agriculture meets the foods requirements of large population of India. It ensures food security for the country. Substantial increase in the production of food grain like-rice, wheat etc. and non-food grains like-tea, coffee, spices, fruits and vegetables, sugar, cotton etc. has made India self-sufficient. Agriculture also contributes to the national income of our country.
  • It produces several materials for industries. It forms the basis of many industries of India like-cotton, textile, jute, sugar industries etc by providing cotton, sugarcane, oilseeds etc. People engaged in agriculture also buy the products of industries like-tractors, pesticides, fertilizers, pump-set etc. Agriculture contributes in foreign exchange of our country.
  • India exports agricultural products like tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco, spices etc and earns foreign currency. Exports from the agricultural sector have helped India in earning valuable foreign exchange and thereby boosting economic development.

Scope/ opportunities/career in Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the top career choices made by students in India. It has lot of scope in terms of career opportunities. With the commercialization of horticulture and agriculture there are wide-ranging opportunities for paid jobs as well as private enterprise.

Major career areas in the field of agriculture are: Agricultural Research, Agri – Business, Agro Industry, Agricultural Education, Agricultural Journalism, Services in Agriculture, Banking, Farming, Conservation, Agricultural Engineering, Management, Sericulture. Today, farming is high tech, big business, and most careers in agriculture are actually either business or science related. Only a small percentage of those employed – within the agricultural industry are employed in “traditional” farming occupations.

Details of various career options mentioned below

Agro - Industry Sector - Agro - industry provides jobs to scientists, engineers, technologists, sales and marketing people, besides the production people. These areas of work relate to production, food processing, grain and seed processing, meat and poultry packing, dairy processing, fats and oils, textiles, fibers, machinery and equipment, fertilizer and lime, pesticides, herbicide, feed manufacturing, constructions, etc. for which people with adequate knowledge, in the respective fields are required.

Services Sector - In order to regulate the functions of adequate and timely supply of seeds, chemicals, fertilizers, etc. at genuine price, as also to regulate quality of the food products supplied for consumption by people, there is requirement for people to inspect, grade, quality control chemicals, plants and animal quarantine, agricultural technicians, agricultural consultants, agricultural statisticians, veterinarians, foreign agricultural service, inspection and regulation, food and feed, seed and fertiliser.

There are several Government agencies at centre, state and district levels, which appoint of agricultural employees. In addition, at the international level the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nation and some other agencies related to the development of agriculture also appoints consultants.

Corporations - Various corporations providing job opportunities to agriculturists include National Seed Corporation, State Farm Corporation, Warehousing Corporation and Food Corporation.

Banking Sector - After doing your B.Sc. you are eligible to apply for jobs offered by banks, finance sector seed  companies, breeding farms, poultry farms and insurance companies etc. Reserve Bank of India, State Bank of India and the nationalised banks offer openings for postgraduates in agriculture and allied areas as Field Officers, Rural Development Officers and Agricultural and Probationary Officers.

Seed Companies - Another job opportunity is to join seed companies as Seed Officer, Scientist (Breeding, plant protection etc.), and technical and other field jobs. Besides these, job opportunities also exist in the areas of farm management, land appraisal, grading, packaging and labelling. Both in the public and private sectors jobs are also offered in the field of marketing and sales, transportation, farm utilities, storage and warehousing etc.

Agricultural University - Different agricultural universities recruit agricultural postgraduates for different post from concerned field of specialisation. Following are some of the positions which are generally advertised by agricultural universities- Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathologist, Breeder, Agro-meteorologist, Economic Botanist., Research Engineer, Agronomist, Scientist, and Associate Professor.

Other posts are Assistant Scientists, Assistant Professors , District Extension Specialists, Assistant Plant Pathologist , Assistant Bacteriologist, Assistant Botanist, Assistant Soil Chemist, Junior Pedologist, Assistant Economic Botanist, Assistant Fruit Breeder, Assistant Seed Research Officer, Assistant Seed Research Officer, Junior Entomologist, Assistant Breeder, Junior Breeder , Junior Agronomist, Assistant Vegetable Botanist , Seed Production Assistant, Assistant Research Scientist, Assistant Plant Physiologist.

Qualification for all above posts is Doctor Degree/ master degree in concerned disciple. However for some posts experience in concerned field is required and for Assistant professor and other teaching post, candidate should be NET qualified (conducted by UGC/ CSIR/ICAR/Other). For senior level post Ph.D in concerned field is compulsory requirement.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research - One can choose career under ICAR in the areas of research; one can become an Agricultural Research Scientists (ARS). The recruitment to these posts is made through ARS/ NET examination is conducted for Scientist post and lectureship. Presently first time ASRB has change the ARS/NET exam criteria. Now ASRB will conduct ARS/NET (Preliminary and Main) examination. Only those candidates who qualify the preliminary examination will be called for Main examination. Candidate for ARS interview will be selected on the basis of performance in main examination.

Also ICAR has better option for agricultural graduates, postgraduates and for doctorate degree holders. Bachelor degree holder can apply for some technical post in concerned discipline. Also some technical post of level of T-5 (Technical Officer) is better option for postgraduate and above the  Technical(T-5) post like T-6 etc and subject matter specialist in Krishi Vigyan Kendras are better opportunities for Ph.D degree holders.

State Agricultural Departments - One can become an Agriculture Development Officers (ADO). The post is equivalent to that of the Block Development Officers (BDO). Recruitment to these posts is made on the basis of an examination conducted by public service commission/concerned department.

You can also apply for the post of a Research Scientist in organisations in the private sector. There, your services may also be utilised in the laboratories in private labs. The desired qualification required for this purpose is of doctoral level i.e. a Ph.D.


Duration - 4 years

Eligibility - +2 Pass with Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Botany & Zoology Typically, a B. Sc in Agriculture is a four-year course, though some universities or institutes offer a five-year course. The curriculum varies from learning about soil science to agricultural meteorology, and there is a balance between theory and practical.

Under Graduate

  • B. Sc Agriculture
  • B. Sc Horticulture
  • B. Tech Agriculture Biotechnology 
  • B. Tech Horticulture 
  • B. Tech Food Process Engineering 
  • B. Tech Energy and Environmental Engineering 
  • B. Tech Bioinformatics


  • M. Sc Agriculture
  • M. Sc Agronomy
  • M. Sc Metrology
  • M. Sc Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry
  • M. Sc Crop Physiology
  • M. Sc Microbiology
  • M. Sc Plant Pathology
  • M. Sc Entomology
  • M. Sc Sericulture
  • M. Sc Nematology
  • M. Sc Horticulture
  • M. Sc  Agricultural Biochemistry
  • M. Sc  Agricultural Biotechnology
  • M. Sc Agricultural Economics
  • M. Sc Agricultural Engineering
  • M. Sc Agricultural Extension
  • M. Sc Seed Science and Technology
  • M. Sc Plant Breeding and Genetics
  • M. Sc Bioinformatics
  • M. Sc Environmental Science
  • Ph. D Agronomy
  • Ph. D Entomology
  • Ph. D Agricultural Extension
  • Ph. D Agriculture Economics
  • Ph. D Horticulture
  • Ph. D Plant Breeding and Genetics
  • Ph. D Seed Science and Technology


  • Post Graduate Diploma in Agricultural Water Management
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Renewable Energy
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Renewable Energy Science and Technology
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Watershed Management

Certificate Course


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