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Home -- Services -- Career Guidence -- After 12th -- Professional Courses -- Agriculture

What is horticulture - It is a branch of agriculture concerned with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts, culinary herbs and spices, beverage crops, medicinal plants and ornamentals such as plants used for landscaping.

Details of the horticulture

  • Presently our country is next to China in area and production of fruits and vegetable crops and has been contributing 10% of fruits and 14% of vegetable of the total world production.
  • India leads the world in the production of Mango, Banana, Sapota, Acid Lime and Cauliflower while the highest productivity of Grape is also recorded here. India occupies second position in production of onion and third in cabbage production globally
  • Fruits such as mango, banana, citrus, guava and apple account for 75 per cent of the total fruit production in the country. India produces about 70 different varieties of various vegetables. The Horticulture sector constituted nearly 20 per cent of agricultural GDP and contributes 4 per cent in the national economy.
  • Horticulture includes vegetable growing, fruit growing, viticulture (science of grape growing), meadow management, forestry and floriculture.
  • The field of horticulture not only involves knowledge or beautification of surroundings, but also the study of plants and their significance. Horticulture deals with plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, preparation of soil, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry and plant physiology.
  • This branch of agriculture supplies food products to man, feed to animals and many raw materials of plant origin to numerous industries (food, mixed-feed, textile, pharmaceutical, and perfume industries). Hence, Horticulture is closely associated with animal husbandry.
  • Horticulturists work and conduct research in various areas of horticulture, to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.
  • Now Horticulture has entered the field of medicine also by the name Horticulture Therapy. It is the practice of engaging people in various therapeutic horticultural practices for the improvement of their mental and physical well being.
  • Horticultural Therapists use horticultural activities and environments to positively influence human well-being, emotions, health and behaviour.

Main Branch and Sub divisions of Horticulture

  • Pomology (Fruits cultivation)
  • Olericulture (Vegetables Cultivation)
  • Floriculture (Flower Cultivation)
  • Post harvest Technology
  • Landscaping- includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants
  • Medicinal Plants
  • Spice and Condiments
  • Aboriculture - study of trees
  • Oenology - including all aspects of wine and wine making

Importance of Horticulture

  • In India, we have several agro-ecological regions. Hence, there are ample opportunities to grow a variety of horticulture crops.
  • Approximate estimates reveal that nearly 11-6 million hectares of land is covered by horticulture crops and the annual production is about 91 million tones.
  • Horticulture crops, though they occupy hardly 7% of the cropped area, they contribute over 20% to the gross agricultural output of India.
  • India produces almost 28.2 million tones of fruits and 66 million tones of vegetables and is next only to Brazil and China.
  • Though the per capita consumption of fruits and vegetables in India is only around 46g and 130 g against a minimum of about 92 g and 300 g respectively recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Nutrition.
  • At the present growing rate, the requirements of fruits and vegetables, on a yearly basis would be nearly 32.58 million tones and 83 million tones respectively.
  • The need for attaining nutritional security and for more profitable use of land has made the growers aware of greater utilization of available wastelands and focused their attention towards horticultural crops that demand less water and other inputs.
  • They also earn 3 to 4 times more remuneration than other field crops.
  • Abundant sunshine throughout the year, surplus labour and varied agro-climate conditions offer high potential for commercial horticulture in the estimated 240 million acres of cultivable wasteland that is lying idle at present.

Scope/ opportunities/career in Horticulture

As of today, Horticulture is considered, one of the fastest growing sectors in agriculture and is a thrust area to stimulate agricultural growth, spurred by the changing domestic food habits towards more nutritious food and increasing overseas demand.
Careers in horticulture are interesting and inspirational as there is continuous development in growing techniques of plants. With new varieties of plants being nurtured the progress of horticultural science in unprecedented. From decorative plants, medicinal plants, fruit yielding trees to flower bearing plants, a horticulturalist studies all plant types. In addition to studies of plant types, students in horticulture also need to study weather and soil conditions, plant diseases and their treatments, and economic viability of each of these plants.

  • Agro-based industries, 
  • Fruit and vegetable processing units,
  • Forestry based industries
  • Insecticide, pesticide and fungicide manufacturing units,
  • Tissue culture-based plant production units
  • State horticulture and forest departments
  • Agriculture universities where you can join as faculty members
  • Employment opportunities are also available in floriculture, testing laboratories and certification at various levels, including nursery production, floor and canopy management, post-harvest management, fertiliser manufacturing unit
  • Horticultural institutes, fruit orchards, vegetable farms, and plantations appoint qualified horticulturists.
  • Many horticulturists take up independent professions as landscape designers. Their services are required by beautification organizations, luxury resorts, and urban development concerns. Many house owners take the services of qualified horticulturists for creating terrace gardens
  • Banks (private and public sector) also offering good jobs
  • Horticulture Therapist
  • Orchard Manager, Plantation Manager, Cut Flower Exporter, Green House Consultant, Supply Chain Manager. 


Duration -4 years

Eligibility - +2 Pass with Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Botany & Zoology

Under Graduate

  • B. Sc Horticulture
  • B. Sc Agriculture


  • M. Sc Horticulture
  • M. Sc Pomology
  • M. Sc Olericulture
  • M. Sc Floriculture
  • M. Sc Post Harvest Technology
  • Ph. D Pomology
  • Ph. D Olericulture
  • Ph. D Floriculture
  • Ph. D Post Harvest Technology


  • Post Graduate Diploma in Horticulture

Certificate Course


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